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Arthur Melbourne Cooper

A.M-1. Cooper Matches the Appeal

Per molti anni i manuali di storia del cinema hanno indicato Fantasmagorie del  parigino Émile Cohl (1908) come il primo film d’animazione vero e proprio. Di un archeo-animatore britannico si era sussurrato, ma senza informazioni precise. Grazie al minuzioso lavoro degli storici olandesi Tjitte De Vries e Ati Mul, è oggi possibile retrocedere fino al diciannovesimo secolo.

Arthur Melbourne-Cooper (1874-1961) fu addestrato alla fotografia dal padre Thomas, e alla neonata cinematografia dal pioniere Birt Acres. Nel 1897, a ventitré anni, fondò la società Cine Syndicate e costruì un piccolo studio nella cantina della sua abitazione alla periferia nord di Londra, fra Barnet e Saint Albans. La sua produzione, sulle prime, non andò oltre i film commissionati da aziende locali.

Come sappiamo, la data di nascita convenzionalmente adottata per la cinematografia è il 28 dicembre 1895 (Parigi, proiezione organizzata dai fratelli Lumière). In realtà macchine per la ripresa e pellicole da impressionare erano in sperimentazione già da qualche anno, ma Melbourne-Cooper  aveva comunque a che fare con una tecnologia, un linguaggio (e, chissà, un’arte) che non s’avvicinavano nemmeno alla maggiore età. In casi come questo, chi ha ingegno s’ingegna.

Nella sua cantina il giovane tuttofare manipolò una macchina da presa in modo che la pellicola, invece che trascinata “in continuo” dalla manovella, procedesse un fotogramma per volta. Preso un oggetto, lo spostava un po’ e scattava un fotogramma. Un altro spostamento, un altro fotogramma. E così di seguito. Una volta sviluppata e stampata la pellicola (sempre nella stessa cantina), Melbourne-Cooper la metteva nel proiettore e la faceva girare a mano alla velocità standard, ottenendo il risultato che i piccoli spostamenti si sommassero nell’occhio dello spettatore e che gli oggetti sembrassero muoversi di vita propria.

Anno 1898, cinema The Empire, Leicester Square, Londra. Sullo schermo gli spettatori vedono alcuni fiammiferi giocare a cricket, e ridono con piacere. Poche settimane dopo, ridono di nuovo alla vista di fiammiferi che giocano a football. Nuova breve attesa, ed ecco i fiammiferi cimentarsi nel golf. La marca sponsorizzatrice è la Bryant & May, che si compiace di vedere il propri zolfanelli così bene accolti dal pubblico.

Nel frattempo, nel cono sud dell’Africa, è in corso la Guerra dei Boeri fra nuovi colonizzatori inglesi e antichi colonizzatori olandesi. Un comitato di dame di carità, costituitosi per sostenere i soldati al fronte, si rivolge ad Arthur Melbourne-Cooper: uno dei pochi piaceri di un combattente, dicono, è fumare una sigaretta, ma i ragazzi laggiù hanno terminato i fiammiferi. Facciamo un appello al pubblico?

Nasce Matches’ Appeal, 1899, primo film d’animazione di cui abbiamo prova certa perché ne è stata salvata una copia. Su un palcoscenico vediamo una scatola di fiammiferi aprirsi da sola, e gli zolfanelli formare due figure animate e una scala. Uno dei due personaggi sostiene la scala, l’altro vi sale e comincia a scrivere su una lavagna: “Un appello. Per una ghinea, la Bryant & May inoltrerà una cassa contenente quanto basta per rifornire di una scatola di fiammiferi ogni soldato di un battaglione. Con il nome dello speditore scritto sopra. Nota bene: i nostri soldati ne hanno bisogno”.  Fine del breve lavoro.

L’agire dei personaggi è sicuro, per quanto rudimentale. Essi manifestano una personalità, sono dunque animati, non semplicemente mossi.

La vicenda si dipana all’interno di un mondo di fantasia, senza la presenza umana di un marionettista che giustifichi l’assurdo di oggetti che assumono una vita autonoma. Matches’ Appeal insomma costituisce un film d’animazione a pieno titolo, nel quale la tecnica dell’immagine-per-immagine non viene utilizzata come “trucco” o effetto speciale, ma costruisce anzi un linguaggio visivo specifico.

Come operatore alla macchina, produttore, regista, Arthur Melbourne-Cooper continuò a lavorare nel cinema per parecchi anni a seguire, e incastonò nella sua corposa filmografia almeno una ventina di ulteriori cortometraggi realizzati con la tecnica dell’animazione e datati fra il 1901 (Dolly’s Toys) e il 1914 (Humpty Dumpty Circus). Fra questi occorre menzionare A Dream of Toyland, dove i giocattoli regalati nel pomeriggio prendono vita di notte, nel sogno di un bambino. Il teatrino di scena rappresenta una strada e il tutto è animato con garbo. Un’atmosfera un po’ inquietante è data dal rapido muoversi delle ombre: in mancanza di fari elettrici il cineasta utilizzava ancora la luce solare, con le inevitabili conseguenze della rotazione terrestre sulla lavorazione fotogramma-per-fotogramma…

Il paradossale destino di Melbourne-Cooper fu quello di precipitare nell’oblio degli studiosi, specialmente dei suoi compatrioti, e di essere di conseguenza cancellato dagli annali.

Oggi, più di un secolo dopo, è necessario fare giustizia assegnando il merito a chi lo ebbe. E tuttavia la storia segue regole che hanno poco a che fare con lo happy ending che ogni frequentatore di cinema avrebbe in cuore.

Chi “scopre” o “inventa” qualcosa non è necessariamente, per la storia, chi per primo compie quest’azione. È chi per primo incide sui fatti del suo tempo mettendo invenzione o scoperta a disposizione di tutti. I Vichinghi misero piede sul continente americano mezzo millennio prima di Cristoforo Colombo, ma erano anacronistici rispetto alla logica della loro epoca e non cambiarono il corso degli eventi. Melbourne-Cooper lavorò in un Paese poco attento all’industria dello spettacolo e alla cultura cinematografica, non ebbe imitatori, non esportò i suoi film nel resto del mondo. Rimane nonostante tutto un archeo-animatore, la cui opera interessa la cronologia ma è rimasta infeconda. Storicamente parlando, Émile Cohl continua a dover essere considerato l’autentico padre del cinema d’animazione. Ai suoi film del 1908-1914 si ispirarono più o meno tutti coloro che si dedicarono a questo ramo, tanto in Europa quanto negli Stati Uniti; e giornalisti e scrittori portarono la sua figura all’attenzione del pubblico più vasto.

E Matches’ Appeal? Attorno al 1907, un’estate, la madre di Arthur Melbourne-Cooper vide il cineasta sbucare allegramente nella sua cucina con un rullo di film in mano. “Hai una scatola, per esempio una scatola di biscotti vuota?” Lei gliela trovò, lui vi depose il rullo (“È un film vecchio, ma non voglio buttarlo via”) e se ne andò ringraziando. Cinquant’anni dopo la scatola venne ritrovata in un armadio, il film che conteneva venne estratto e restaurato. Era, appunto, il primo film d’animazione mai fatto al mondo.

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